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Fredrick R. Ishengoma  
The University of Dodoma. Dodoma, United  
RECIBIDO 15/12/2021 ACEPTADO 08/02/2022 PUBLICADO 30/03/2022  
ABSTRACT  
Artificial intelligence (AI) is transforming the healthcare system at a breakneck pace by improving  
digital healthcare services, research, and performance, fueled by the combination of big data and  
strong machine learning algorithms. As a result, AI applications are being employed in digital  
healthcare domains of which some where previously regarded as only done by human expertise.  
However, despite AI's benefits in digital healthcare services, issues and ethical concerns need to  
be addressed. Using mapping review methodology, a taxonomy of issues and ethical concerns  
surrounding the employment of AI in healthcare is presented and discussed. Moreover, policy  
recommendations and future research directions are presented.  
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Digital healthcare, Ethics, Machine Learning.  
RESUMEN  
La inteligencia artificial (IA) está transformando el sistema de atención médica a un ritmo  
vertiginoso al mejorar los servicios, la investigación y el rendimiento de la atención médica digital,  
impulsados por la combinación de grandes datos y sólidos algoritmos de aprendizaje automático.  
Como resultado, las aplicaciones de IA se están empleando en dominios de atención médica  
digital, algunos de los cuales antes se consideraban realizados solo por experiencia humana. Sin  
embargo, a pesar de los beneficios de la IA en los servicios de atención médica digital, es  
necesario abordar los problemas y las preocupaciones éticas. Utilizando la metodología de revisión  
de mapeo, se presenta y discute una taxonomía de problemas y preocupaciones éticas que rodean  
REVISTA INNOVACIÓN Y SOFTWARE  
VOL 3 Nº 1 Marzo - Agosto 2022 ISSN Nº 2708-0935  
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el empleo de la IA en el cuidado de la salud. Además, se presentan recomendaciones de política  
y direcciones de investigación futuras.  
Palabras claves: Inteligencia artificial, Sanidad digital, Ética, Machine Learning.  
INTRODUCTION  
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is bringing a fundamental change in digital healthcare services, thanks  
to the growing availability, accessibility of data and the rapid advancement of advanced analytics  
[1,2]. The significant growth of digital data, the advancement of computational power bolstered  
by innovation in hardware, including graphics processing units and machine learning (ML)  
techniques, widely applied using deep learning (DL), are all creating an indelible mark in the  
healthcare domain [3]. This has attracted attention, and a considerable number of research on  
the effective usage of ML in big volumes of health data [4-6]. Moreover, the increased AI use is  
sought to lower the significantly higher rate of human error in healthcare services, which is likely  
to result to injury or even death [7]. For instance, scientists are researching the effective use of  
DL to imitate the neural networks in the human brain and are being tested in hospitals by  
businesses like Google to see if these machines can help with decision-making by anticipating  
what will occur to a patient [8]. However, several ethical concerns arise in the healthcare domain  
when AI systems perform the same tasks as humans [9-12]. For instance, consider a scenario  
when the robot commits a calculating error and prescribes the incorrect dose of medicine,  
resulting in catastrophic harm or death. Additional queries also arise in the same vein, such as  
what if, on the other hand, AI machines result in new kinds of medical errors? And who will be  
found liable if they occur? [14, 15]. In such a setting, some scholars argue that policies and rules  
for ethical AI in health care should are inevitable to these rising challenges [13].  
In the meantime, policies and ethical guidelines for healthcare services that use AI and its  
implementations lag behind the pace of AI advancements [16]. As a result, existing AI-based  
technologies and applications must be examined and discussed to address ethical concerns. Thus,  
in this paper, the existing issues and ethical concerns in the employment of AI in digital health  
are presented and discussed. The paper is structured as follows: Section 2 presents the overview  
of AI employment in digital health. Section 3 presents the methodology used in this study. Section  
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discusses the existing issues in employing AI in digital healthcare services. Section 5 discusses  
and presents the ethical dimensions of AI concerns in digital healthcare along with the taxonomy.  
Finally, the paper is concluded in section 5 with conclusions, policy recommendations and future  
research directions.  
REVISTA INNOVACIÓN Y SOFTWARE  
VOL 3 Nº 1 Marzo - Agosto 2022 ISSN Nº 2708-0935